The main issue on the table during the Erdoğan-Putin summit was the increased regime and Russian attacks on Idlib and Afrin. These attacks were jeopardizing the terms of the deal that was reached in 2018. Both leaders confirmed their willingness to maintain the existing status quo in Syria and work together to restore security and stability in the war-torn country. Both Moscow and Ankara are more pressured than ever to find a political solution in Syria due to the enduring costs and potential security risks of the Syrian civil war.
It is time to look at Turkey-Russia relations from the perspective of an 'early response to great power competition' rather than the classical balance-of-power approach.
The U.S. is no longer on the throne as the world's sole superpower. Although the country tried to take measures against the strong rise of China, even U.S. allies have begun to establish close ties with China
Washington’s perspective on Ankara is no longer plagued by excessive tensions either. It would seem that the Afghanistan talks and Turkey’s efforts to normalize ties with Egypt and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) made a positive impact on the atmosphere. Yet the state of idleness and deadlock, which Erdoğan mentioned, won’t change in the absence of fresh attempts to foster bilateral cooperation.
We are living in an age of crisis, with the world's economic and political system more complicated than ever due to the unfair actions of the U.N. and U.S.