Western politics: Polarization or consolidation?

The year 2024 is the election year for many Western countries. While some influential Western states held elections already, some others will hold elections during the second half of this year...

Western politics Polarization or consolidation
The rise of the right in Europe and the US

The rise of the right in Europe and the US presidential elections

The European Parliament election results indicate a rise in support for center-right and far-right candidates. Pro-European Union groups, which hold the majority in the parliament, saw the biggest losses among liberals and greens. This shift suggests that Europe will inevitably lean more towards right-wing policies in the coming period. Ignoring the rise of the far-right and persisting with left and liberal policies will only strengthen the right, making a shift towards more right-leaning politics by the center inevitable. Similarly, in American politics, the political cost of left and liberal policies has been bolstering Trump, leading Biden to adopt more centrist and right-leaning policies as the elections approach. While these rightward shifts may provide short-term solutions, it is clear that without a comprehensive political agenda, they will be insufficient to curb the rise of the right.


In the dynamic landscape of global politics, Türkiye’s bid for membership in the BRICS group – which includes Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Ethiopia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) – represents a strategic move poised to reshape its future. Foreign Minister Hakan Fidan’s recent attendance at the BRICS meetings in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, underscores Türkiye’s efforts to refine its foreign policy. Although Türkiye has not yet formally applied for membership, Fidan expressed interest in joining BRICS during his recent visit to Beijing.

What is the EU AI Act? What are the main challenges it may face? What is the impact of this regulation within the global regulatory landscape?

What is the significance of the CFE? Which countries suspended or has withdrawn from the CFE? Why did Turkiye suspend the practice of the CFE? Can Turkiye start an armament program exceeding the existing limits of the CFE? What could be the impact of Turkiye’s suspension?

The world was not in good shape on the second anniversary of the Russian-Ukrainian war. A quick look at the most recent developments alone would suffice to appreciate that we are entering a period of fragmentation and high risks.

Türkiye's position in multipolar world landscape

The debate on Turkish foreign policy's "axis," "strategic autonomy" and "normalization" policy was recently revived by Parliament's approval of Sweden's NATO membership, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's Cairo trip and Türkiye joining the European Sky Shield Initiative.

Türkiye's position in multipolar world landscape
Two-state solution in Palestine appears unfeasible

Two-state solution in Palestine appears unfeasible

Whoever talks about the Palestinian-Israeli question from the United States to China and from the European Union to Russia claims that they support a two-state solution. The main reason for this claim is the two well-known United Nations Resolutions about the issue.


Ankara and Budapest have developed a close partnership in many fields since the Council’s inaugural meeting in 2013. Indeed, they elevated their bilateral relations to the level of advanced strategic partnership.

For Türkiye, Turkish-Greek relations have shifted from being solely a security concern to a potential axis of cooperation. While prioritizing its foreign policy within a broader geopolitical context, Ankara has chosen to address issues with Greece pragmatically. Nevertheless, changes in the regional strategic landscape, Türkiye’s rising influence, emerging regional challenges and its geopolitical presence in the Eastern Mediterranean following the maritime jurisdiction agreement with Libya have once again placed the relationship on a competitive and security-focused footing.

On October 30, 2023, President Biden took a significant step by signing an executive order that charts a course for the utilization of AI in the United States, aiming to both harness its potential and mitigate the associated risks. Before this directive, it's crucial to note that President Trump made history by signing two executive orders in 2019 and 2020, marking the initial official forays into AI governance by an American president. Trump's focus primarily centered on how the government uses AI and strategies to maintain U.S. leadership in this field. In contrast, since assuming office, President Biden's official approach to AI has predominantly emphasized ethical and responsible implementation. His primary focus is ensuring that the application of AI adheres to ethical standards and societal responsibility, particularly in its impact on American citizens.

The Israeli attacks and violence against the innocent people of the Gaza Strip including children, women, the elderly and the disabled have been continuing for the last two weeks. On the one hand, it has been bombing indiscriminately not only civilian buildings and homes of ordinary people, but also schools, hospitals and places of worship, targeting of which are generally considered war crimes. On the other hand, confining civilian people to a certain area and depriving them of basic needs such as electricity, water, food, and medical needs also constitute crimes against humanity.

Merely skimming over the world news, one quickly notices Türkiye’s growing geopolitical significance. Let me elaborate by highlighting four issues, excluding countless others – including migration, armed drones, the Altay tank and Türkiye’s rapprochement with Egypt. Türkiye will host the third international meeting toward the Ukraine peace summit. Ankara pledged to target all PKK terror groups and its Syrian presence YPG assets in Iraq and Syria. Azerbaijan refused to participate in EU-brokered talks with Armenia in Spain, citing Türkiye’s exclusion. Last but not least, the Abu Dhabi-based investment company ADQ is in talks with Türkiye regarding constructing a railroad over the Bosphorus as part of a trade corridor linking Europe with the Middle East and Asia. Obviously, Türkiye’s direct involvement in peace diplomacy, counterterrorism, the South Caucasus region’s stability and energy/logistics corridors does not just relate to its geographical location.

President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan visited Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan, on Monday with an official delegation, which included me, to attend groundbreaking and opening ceremonies for a natural gas pipeline and a military complex. By the time of the delegation’s departure, the media reported that eight senior Armenian military officers had been arrested on the charge of plotting the assassination of Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan.

Türkiye has been facing many vital challenges since the end of the Cold War, especially in the last decade. Türkiye tried to overcome these challenges together with its allies. There was a high level of cooperation between Ankara and its Western allies during the first decade of the Justice and Development Party (AK Party) governments.

Türkiye has continued where it left off after the last presidential and parliamentarian elections. The Turkish political leadership has been continuously struggling to increase its strategic autonomy in international politics and to build different axes of stability in regions, reflecting its multilateral foreign policy understanding. When looking at the most recent visit to Ankara and Turkish visits to other countries, we can see that Türkiye will continue to invest in regionalism and minilateralism in the near future.

President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan visited Budapest on Sunday, along with heads of state and government from the Turkic states, the Balkans and Qatar, on the occasion of Hungary's national day.

There is a widely held belief that Turkish foreign policy is currently undergoing a significant shift. Particularly in the aftermath of the presidential elections on May, a noticeable process has unfolded wherein Türkiye has been actively working to mend its relationships with Europe.

The world is changing, just as once visualized by the Lord of the Rings author J.R.R. Tolkien. Financial systems, payment systems, and transfers are all going digital. Cash usage is in decline all over the world. As an additional (but totally new generation) payment choice, central bank digital currency (CBDC) is the future of money and payment systems.