• Pesident Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's bilateral meeting with U.S. President Donald Trump in Osaka, Japan marked a new chapter in the S-400 dispute. A textbook example of leader-to-leader diplomacy, that meeting paved the way for Trump lending support to the Turkish position on Patriot missiles, the Russian air defense system and the F-35 jet fighter program.
  • The leader-to-leader diplomacy between the U.S. and Turkey at the G20 summit was crucial in defusing the S-400 dispute and turned it into a potential communication tool for bilateral ties
  • Since the beginning of Trump's presidency, the two leaders have pretty regularly communicated with each other in face-to-face meetings or through phone calls. This has been an important factor in determining bilateral ties in the last two-and-a-half years.

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